THE LAW OF PSYCHIC PHENOMENA.
may be mentioned " Suggestive Therapeutics," by Professor Bernheim, and " Hypnotism," by Albert Moll, of Berlin.
Professor Charcot, of the Paris Salpetriere, is also the founder of a school of hypnotism, which is generally known as the Paris school, or school of the Salpetriere. Charcot's great reputation as a scientist obtained for him many followers at first, prominent among whom are Binet and Fere", whose joint work, entitled "Animal Magnetism," has been widely read both in Europe and America.
These schools differ widely both in theory and practice, their only point of union being their utter contempt for the theory and practice of what must still be known, for want of a better term, as the mesmeric school.
These three schools represent the grand divisions which it will be necessary to recognize in the discussion of the subject under consideration.
The leading points of difference between the three schools may be briefly stated as follows:
i. The theory of the Nancy school is that the different physiological conditions characterizing the hypnotic state are determined by mental action alone; that the phenomena can best be produced in persons of sound physical health and perfect mental balance; and that this mental action and the consequent physical and psychological phenomena are the result, in all cases, of some form of suggestion.
2. The Paris school holds that hypnotism is the result of an abnormal or diseased condition of the nerves; that a great number of the phenomena can be produced independently of suggestion in any form; that the true hypnotic condition can be produced only in persons whose nerves are diseased; and that the whole subject is explicable on the basis of cerebral anatomy or physiology.
3. The mesmerists hold to the fluidic theory of Mesmer: that the hypnotic condition is induced, independent of suggestion, by passes made by the operator over the subject, accompanied by intense concentration of mind and will on the part of the former; that from him flows a subtle fluid which impinges upon the subject wherever it is directed,