The Dictionary Of Photography

A True Historic Record Of The Art & Practice Of Photography 100 Years Ago.

Home | About | Photography | Contact

cloth in half, and again in half, so as to give four pieces 9 ins. wide and 36 ins. long; now cut two slanting strips from each, commencing at 2 ins. wide, and narrowing down to the other end ; this will give four pieces of cloth 36 ins. long - 9 ins. wide at one end, and narrowing to 5 ins. at the other. Have these sewn together by the edges, so as to form a conical sleeve, which will take the place of bellows 36 ins. long. At the wide end nail a frame of wood large enough to take the negative, and at the narrow end a piece of wood to take the lens, or the camera front may be utilised for this purpose. It will not be necessary to pleat it like bellows, but it can be finely pleated at intervals, and safety pins used to hold the pleats together when required to shorten the distance, so the pleats can easily be let out when required, or pieces of elastic can be run along the edges to serve the same purpose. The possessor of a magic-lantern can easily utilise that, no matter what size the condenser, if a sleeve of black cloth is made to fasten at one end round the lantern objective and at the other to the camera, the negative being placed in the position of the focussing glass of the camera. Where the operator can utilise gas or several oil-lamps it is only necessary to place between them and the negative a sheet of flashed opal glass ground on the flashed side, or a piece of ground glass coated on the ground side with an emulsion of sulphate of baryta in gelatine or of finely sifted carbonate of lead. When using an ordinary lantern it is absolutely necessary that no stray light should find its way out of the same; therefore it is nearly always necessary to enclose it in an outer box. This is a point which requires careful attention, or foggy, degraded whites will ensue in the resulting enlargement.
Focussing. It may be taken as an accepted axiom that the nearer the light is to the condensers and the nearer the condensers to the negative the greater will be the illumination, and the greater the distance between the lens and sensitive surface the less the illumination ; or, in other words, the larger one enlarges, the longer one must expose, everything else being constant. There is one precaution necessary when using condensers, or even artificial light of any kind with condensers, and that is, to see that everything is gradually warmed. Don't turn your light on