The Dictionary Of Photography

A True Historic Record Of The Art & Practice Of Photography 100 Years Ago.

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Enlarging
Vignetting, Printing-in Clouds, Reducing, and Intensifying
Prints.
To vignette enlargements is not a difficult matter, and for portraits the result is sometimes more pleasing than without vignetting. For vignetting it is only requisite to take a piece of card-board the same size as the enlargement is to be, and cut in the cardboard an opening the shape of the desired vignette, but small; it should not be much larger than the lens aperture. The size of the vignette is determined by the distance of the vignetting paper from the sensitive surface, as the nearer this the smaller the vignette, and, vice versa, the nearer the lens the larger the vignette. The edges of the vignetting opening in the card need not be serrated, as the vignette is softened by keeping the card constantly moving between the lens and sensitive surface. Many operators, however, prefer to use a vignetting shape with deeply serrated edges ; and this is so adjusted as to give a pleasing soft outline on the focussing easel or screen ; and this method is preferred because the moving vignette is stated to be the cause of blurring of the outlines from double vibration, a charge we have not found substantiated. Enlarge-ments of landscapes are always improved by the addition of clouds ; and if these are non-existent in the negative, a separate suitable negative should be used. There are several methods of inserting clouds, which are given below. One method is to make a small transparency by contact printing from the negative to be enlarged, and make a transparency of the cloud negative, masking out the landscape. The two will then be bound film to film, care being taken that the clouds are not reversed in lighting, and then making an enlarged negative from this. Another method is to make a silver print from the small negative, and carefully cut out the landscape, and allow the two pieces of the silver print to blacken completely in the sun. Then fasten the landscape print on to the cloud negative, and the sky print on to the original negative, or else paint out the sky with some opaque colour. Having focussed and exposed the landscape negative, cap your lens with a piece of orange glass, and carefully adjust your cloud negative till it is in exactly the same position as the first negative, and the outline agrees with that of the view, which may be marked at the edges of the sensitive paper; then expose. f                      274