The Dictionary Of Photography

A True Historic Record Of The Art & Practice Of Photography 100 Years Ago.

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Negative                                              Negative Storing
on photography, by Dr. P. H. Emerson. Naturalistic Photo-graphy is an attempt to render by means of the usual tools and operations of photography the same as given by the so-called " Impressionist" school of painting, of which Whistler is the leader. As perhaps the clearest exposition of the teaching and aim of this school, we cannot do better than refer to Dr. Emerson himself, who says that a picture "should be made just as sharp as the eye sees it, and no sharper; for it must be remembered the eye does not see things as sharply as the photographic lens, for the eye has the faults due to dispersion, spherical aberration, astigmatism, aerial turbidity, blind spot, and beyond twenty feet it does not adjust perfectly for the different planes. All these slight imperfections make the eye's vision more imperfect than that of the optician's lens, even when objects in one plane only are sharply focussed; therefore, except in very rare cases, which will be touched upon elsewhere, the chief point of interest should be slightly - very slightly - out of focus, while all things, out of the plane of the principal object, it is perfectly obvious from what has been said, should also be slightly out of focus, not to the extent of producing destruction of structure or fuzziness, but sufficiently to keep them back and in place. . . . The rule in focussing, therefore, should be, focus for the principal object of the picture, but all else must not be sharp; and even that principal object must not be as perfectly sharp as the optical lens will make it. It will be said, But in Nature the eye wanders up and down the landscape, and so gathers up the impressions, and all the landscape in turn appears sharp. But a picture is not ' all the landscape '; it should be seen at a certain distance - the focal length of the lens used, as a rule ; and the observer, to look at it thoughtfully, if it be a picture, will settle on a principal object, and dwell upon it, and when he tires of this he will want to gather up suggestions of the rest of the picture."
Negative is the term applied to the image in which the lights and shades are reversed. These can be made by direct action of light in the camera, or by printing in a frame from a positive.
Negative Storing. To the amateur whose work is frequent and successful the stock of negatives soon becomes considerable,