The Dictionary Of Photography

A True Historic Record Of The Art & Practice Of Photography 100 Years Ago.

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Time, Development by
according to the photographer's ideal as regards contrast in the negative, which, as is well known, varies for different printing processes: -
Mr. Watkins says : The factors for combined developers vary with the proportion of the constituents.
Sometimes there is no high light in the negative, in which case (as in photographing a carving) note the first appearance, and use a factor about three-fifths the usual one.
For sky negatives use a factor one-third to one-half the usual one; for snow scenes or white objects, one-half to two-thirds. To increase contrast in the negative increase the factor, and vice versa.
Let your aim be to develop for a given amount of contrast in the print, not for a certain standard of density in the negative. If you desire more contrast, use a higher factor; if less contrast, a lower one. Working on this plan, the factor decides the contrast in the print, and the amount of exposure decides the density of the negative. Therefore, if you are erratic in your exposures your negatives will be of all kinds of printing density,