The Dictionary Of Photography

A True Historic Record Of The Art & Practice Of Photography 100 Years Ago.

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Titles on Prints
but the prints will be more even than you deserve. My exposure meter would secure fair uniformity in density of negative. This timing method will rectify the invariable error of all who develop on the old plan of over-developing their under-exposures and under-developing their over-exposures. So universal is the latter error that it is a fixed belief amongst even experts that over-exposure causes thinness in the negative, whereas the cause te simply that the negative is taken out of the developer too soon. If left in its proper time, it would have ensured a negative of greater density than usual and taking a long time to print, but of correct gradation. On the contrary, snap-shots (which are almost always on the side of under-exposure) are usually developed too far, until they have gained the "soot and white-wash " stage of contrast. Timing obviates this, and secures a thin negative, which is perhaps troublesome to print, but has correct gradation.
The Eikronometer. Mr. Watkins has always pointed out that a special instrument is not absolutely necessary to carry out his method, still it is a fact that a watch is by no means convenient in a dark-room, the minute divisions being so small. The eikronometer is a small clock with hand going round once in ten minutes, and the minute divisions are, therefore, large and easily read. It is also provided with a suitable calculator. Mr. Watkins reminds photographers that the whole method of timing by a multiple of the appearance of the image is protected by patent still in force, but he has always given free permission for its use except with special appliances.
Titles on Prints. Numerous methods have been suggested for use, such as writing backwards on the negative, employing type, carbon tissue, etc. A useful method, is to write the title first of all on the paper, before printing, with some aqueous non-actinic or opaque colour, such as gamboge or Indian ink, the same being washed off prior to toning; or the following may be used after toning : -
Iodide of potassium............ 10 parts.
Water......... .........30 ..
Iodine... ...... ... ...... 1 ,,
£um ,.............. ... I ..
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