M. Turillon, of Paris, the reflector hinges so that when the camera is held to the eye level it is not in use, but for cases in which the camera is held low the reflector is used. Cross lines are marked on both lens and reflector, the exact coincidence of the two crosses serving for a very accurate orientation of the camera, and M. Turillon prefers to use a finder exactly corre-sponding with the focus of the objective used. A finder of this type must necessarily be placed at some distance from the eye ; hence, the use of the reflecting form, rather than the direct vision form, may often have the substantial advantage of allowing the eye to look in a direction from which no considerable glare of extraneous light reaches it. (For a rather full account of the most perfect system, that of the full-sized focussing finder, see Animals, Photographing.)
View Meter. An instrument used to gauge the amount of view included by the lens upon the focussing screen without the trouble of setting up the camera. The following, which has now been placed upon the market commercially, is a very good form: -
a b c d, a brass tube bearing at one end a cap in which is an
opening (g h), bearing a proportionate size to the plate used : for instance, for quarter-plates, orthe opening may be
; or for half-plate, This opening frames
the view, and limits its extent according to the distance the inner tube is drawn out. e f is a double concave lens of focus, and ll a double convex lens of 3-in. focus; when the eye is applied to the convex lens the picture is viewed in miniature. p will show front view of cap.
To use this it must be adjusted to the lenses with which it will be worked. To do this it is only necessary to erect the