52 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
used by I sis over her son, Horus, when he was once burnt. Pain could be caused to an enemy by the maltreatment of a waxen image of him. Indeed, the mere knowledge of the sun-god's name was sufficient to give I sis magical power over an enemy. From these and similar ideas grew the belief in protective amulets, which assumed such tremendous importance both for the living and the dead. Purity was requisite in him who would be benefited by magic. Among the purposes to which magic was put were the avoidance of death, the protection of mothers and their children ; the laying of spells on people who were feared ; the giving of assistance to women in travail ; the curing of pains in the head, snake-bite and scorpion stings ; the ridding of houses of snakes ; preservation from hunger and thirst, the risks of the law courts, the attacks of evil persons, and plague. There was no explicit classification of magic into Black and White, but it was an offence against the law to use magic of any kind for evil purposes.
The difference between the physician and the practitioner of magic was exactly defined by a Greek treatise on Alchemy. The physician exercises his craft 1 mechanically and by books \ while the latter is a priest ' acting through his own religious feeling \
There appears to be no special word for ' magician ', and magicians certainly formed no separate caste. It is in harmony with the homogeneity of religion and magic, that the priests should have been the chief repositories of magical knowledge. The ritualist was specially named as empowered to perform cures, as having discovered incantations, and as being endowed with the gift of prophecy. He was the ' chief kherheb ' and knew the sacred writings from beginning to end. Priests, doctors and sacred scribes alike received the final touches to their education at colleges called per-