66 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
Thus by a combination of gentle irony and sound argument is superstition banished from the realm of medicine. Diseases are the result not of one or two but of a large variety of causes, and ' we must surely consider the cause of each complaint to be those things the presence of which necessarily produce a complaint of a specific kind, and in the absence of which it ceases to exist \
We find this growing body of knowledge defended both against superstition and against the encroachments of the philosophers who come with their ready-made views of the nature of man derived from cosmological speculation and attempt to base the practice of medicine upon them. Thus medicine became distinctly observational and experimental. It should also be noted that the Hippocratic doctors held an exalted ethical ideal of their profession as a disinterested service of humanity. These various ideas found expression in aphorisms current in their school. Emphasizing the truth that science is a slow growth demanding the co-operation of successive generations, they said, ' Art is long, life is short \ And feeling the sacredness of the office they were called upon to fulfil they said : ' Where the love of mankind is, there is the love of the art \97
About 380 B.C. Plato, in the Republic, besides anticipating the psychoanalytical discussion of dreams, advocated the segregation and more common-sense treatment of the insane. He also understood the influence of the mind and emotions upon physical health. This is clearly shown by his narrative of Socrates' dissertation on the cure of headache. In the course of this recital Plato says :
' Charmides had been complaining of a headache, and Critias had asked Socrates to make believe that he could cure him of it. Socrates said that he had a charm which he had learnt when serving with the army, of one