70 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
Prologue to the Book of Job, written possibly in the fifth century before Christ. There, Satan appears as one of the sons of God (Elohim) a disconcerting son, it is true, but nevertheless loyal.
Satan's next appearance is in the Book of Chronicles (written in the post-Exilic period probably in the fourth century B.C.). The Chronicler writes :
' And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel ' (I Chron. xxi, i). For this incident of the numbering of Israel by David the Chronicler is indebted to the Book of Samuel, written several centuries earlier. The parallel passage in 2 Sam. xxiv, 1, runs as follows : ' And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them, saying, Go, number Israel and Judah \ It will be observed that in this older narrative Jehovah Himself is the tempter of David, just as He was of Abraham. And this was the primitive belief of Israel ; but in the interval between the writing of Samuel and the writing of Chronicles a new belief had sprung up, that Satan, not Yahweh, was the tempter, at first, as in Job, in subordination to Divine permission, but later as an independent agent.
It seems probable that the Jews derived this belief from the dualism of Persian religion. Zoroaster had taught the existence of two principles, good and evil, or light and darkness, embodied in two personal beings, Ormuzd and A$riman. Afcriman, the God of Evil and Darkness in eternal conflict with the God of Light and Goodness, became the figure of Satan in later Judaism.
Belief in spirits was common enough among the Jews, but they were not invoked for purposes of healing. Witches and wizards were consulted in connection with necromancy and, in opposition to this practice, warnings were frequently given by the nabiim and kahinim