198 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
well known, however, that so long ago as December 1841, I particularly pointed out the remarkable docility of patients during hypnotism, which made*fhem most anxious to comply with every proper request or supposed wish of others.'
It is for this reason that history may well accord him the partial honour of bringing hypnosis out of occultism into the realm of psychology. The ageing Braid lived to see a renaissance of interest in his hypnotism, now renamed Braidism. His works were presented to the French Academy by Professor Velopeau, and through the period i860 to 1880 stimulated neurologists on the continent to embark on a searching investigation of the psychology and mechanics of hypnosis.
The pivotal figure around which experimental hypnosis moved was that of Jean Martin Charcot. As an undergraduate interne he had entered the Salpetriere, outside Paris, which since 1656 has been an asylum for prostitutes and insane women. Thrown among the motley group of syphilitics, chronic invalids, epileptics and paralytics that thronged the wards of the Salpetriere, Charcot, with enormous energy, proceeded virtually to construct a science of clinical neurology. His reputation as the father of modern neurology rests on his work in the then relatively uncharted field. He studied diseases of the spine, classifying them into different groups ; understood locomotor ataxia, infantile paralysis, and described migraine, chorea and the effects of syphilis on the nervous system. ' His lectures were a revelation in clinical demonstration. Charcot's genius lay in observation and systematization. His fascination lay in his personality.'25
Soon Charcot became interested in hypnosis, and hoped to establish a real factual body of knowledge about it by means of experimental methods. So solidly did he