v THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOTHERAPY 203
relaxed ; your body is warm \ Following this preparatory period of relaxation, the hypnotist would say in a sharp voice, ' Go to sleep ! ' Sleep is itself a suggestion, said Bernheim, and is allied to hypnosis. How could hypnotic sleep be pathological ? ' Non,' said Bernheim, ' II n'y a pas d'hypnotisme ; toute est dans la suggestion ' (' There is no hypnotism ; it is all suggestion '). It was only necessary to suggest the idea of sleep, and the patient went into somnambulance. Bernheim increased his activities and he was amazed to find he could put 90 per cent, of his subjects to sleep. This was an astonishing discovery, and calculated to upset the contentions of the Salpetriere school. Not everyone could be hysterical ; but everyone could be, and was, suggestible.
Liebeault, Bernheim and others of the Nancy school asserted that their experience in treating hypnotically a vast number of patients led them to the conclusion that nothing resembling Charcot's three stages had been or/ could be evoked spontaneously. They considered, in fact, that Charcot introduced a new hysterical condition into the Salpetriere ; and that this became, as it were, an institution of the place with which every new-comer hastened to comply. They supported this assertion by showing that when they in their Nancy practice explained to hysterical patients the effects produced by Charcot, the three stages, never before manifested, were forthcoming. Bernheim has well said, ' Mefiez-vous de la suggestion ' ; and an English physician has given an equally sage warning, ' Take care, or you will find what you are looking for \
Bernheim popularized the discoveries of the Nancy School. The doubts of earlier observers with regard to Charcot's hypnosis of hysterics were recalled. Richet, a man of gifted insight, had already found that