212 PSYCHOTHERAPY: SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
A travelling fellowship led Freud in 1885 to France, where he attended Charcot's clinic. He pondered on the extraordinary things he saw and soon afterwards translated Charcot's lectures into German, becoming one of the inner circle of the clinic.
For the next few years, after his return to Vienna, he worked with the neurotic patients who were turned away from the impatient practitioners of Vienna, utilizing the hypnotic methods he learned in the Salpetriere, and collaborating with Dr. Josef Breuer, a well-established Viennese practitioner, who had maintained a desultory interest in cases of hysteria. Both had been encouraged to work with hypnosis by the discoveries concerning hysteria which had been made in France. About the year 1889 Freud went to Bernheim, and became more convinced than ever that suggestion operated on mental processes which necessarily remained hidden from the eyes of physicians. He returned to Vienna full of new hope, to continue his treatments with hypnosis. His contacts with Dr. Breuer continued. One case particularly impressed them as illustrating the new theories of the French schools. Breuer had found on hypnotizing a girl of 21 years, with hysterical paralysis, that under hypnosis she mentioned a particularly unpleasant experience which had apparently been forgotten. As these memories came to light, the patient showed signs of undergoing emotional excitement. This girl remembered nursing her father, years before, through an illness in which he was bedridden. Under hypnosis, the emotional reaction to what she had been forced to do was revived as she recollected her experiences. By bringing these emotionally charged memories to the surface under hypnosis she ' talked out' the effect of the original emotional trauma.
The new theory of the emotional causation of