2l8 PSYCHOTHERAPY: SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
Almost from the first all those adherents of Freud who, following the example of the master, displayed original vigour and personal initiative in development were, one by one, compelled to leave the sect, when they were not actually kicked out/ 53 At that time also a split occurred in the ranks of psychoanalysis. Alfred Adler was the first to secede. The second defection from the ranks was that of Jung. Each of these two men developed his own psychological school : Adler, Individual Psychology ; and Jung, Analytical Psychology. Dr. A. Adler died in Aberdeen, May 28, 1937, at the age of 67, during one of his frequent lecture tours. He was born in Vienna, took his medical degree in 1895, and worked in the related faculties of philosophy and sociology. He first practised ophthalmology, but his left-wing leanings soon led him into the psychiatric field and he became a member of the group that surrounded Freud. Originally he was an active supporter of the psychoanalytic movement but, as he himself expressed it, ' not being content to carry on in the shadow of the master ', he developed a doctrinal attitude towards what he termed 'inferior organs', saying that different characteristics were formed in the struggle of the individual to overcome, or compensate for, such inferiorities.2 Later on he placed less emphasis on organic and more on the purely psychological feeling of inferiority. The neurosis in his view is due to the individual's Will to Power or Will to Supremacy failing to find social expression and taking refuge in an imaginary fictitious goal.5
About 1911 the Swiss group of the International Psychoanalytic Society, led by Dr. Carl G. Jung, also found itself hampered by the too strictly sexual interpretations of the unconscious mental life. Jung, who had been one of the most brilliant disciples of Freud, was equipped with vast knowledge and a scholar's