v THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOTHERAPY 219
diligence. Not only were neurotics in need of treatment, he insisted, but those searching for self-creative opportunities, seeking true meaning and direction for their lives, also required the analyst's aid. Successful in business, seemingly well adjusted in their love-lives, many intelligent persons stretch for something which will allow them to fulfil their ' creative stirrings '. The soul of man has to be satisfied. Beyond gratification of the instincts and the pleasure-sense there was something larger, something truly religious. All his life Jung, the son of a prominent Swiss clergyman, had been imbued with the ideals of the religious life. He brought into psychoanalysis, as we shall see later, these feelings for the higher ideals of mankind. What he was aiming at was nothing less than a constructive process in which the patient should be guided to utilize his new-found energies, liberated from conflicts and repressions, in the development of a balanced mental and spiritual life, a process to which he gave the name, ' psychosynthesis '.
Wilhelm Stekel broke away from the orthodox movement about 1912 and developed along his own line. He disapproved of long analysis, considering that from three to six months was sufficient. He calls his method ' active analysis ' because he disagrees with the orthodox view that the analyst should remain passive and not impose interpretations on the patient. He depends on intuition for interpreting the patient's reaction rather than on theory. He explains most sex difficulties as due to fixation on an early level of development.214
Otto Rank, whom Wittels in 1924 called ' Freud's Echermann ', starting from Freud's view that all anxiety goes back to the anxiety of birth, came to the conclusion that ' the patient's Unconscious uses the analytic healing process in order to repeat the trauma