220 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
of birth and thus proceed to abreact it \ He would explain type differences from this : ' The introverted type of character seems to cling to the weak, delicate, fragile children, who are often born early and for the most part have an easy birth, while the nine-month and hence mostly stronger children frequently show the opposite type of character. This is explained by the fact that in the former, in consequence of the relatively slight birth trauma, the primal anxiety is not so powerful and the backward striving tendency has less resistance opposed to it; if these human beings become neurotic they generally show an introverted depressive character. The second type drive the intensely experienced primal anxiety forcefully outside, and they tend in their neurosis to reproduce less the primal situation than the birth trauma itself, against which, in the striving backwards, they violently collide' l87 (p. 209). He developed theories on Art and Religion on the lines that security was found only in the womb situation, but a regressive flight into this brought memories of the pains of birth, and all our striving is for a compromise between this wish and fear.
Georg Walther Groddeck (1866-1934), a physician at Baden-Baden, abandoned the use of medicine in favour of massage and physical treatment. Becoming aware of the psychological element in sickness he came into contact with Freud, who advised him that anyone who understood the phenomena of transference was capable of practising analysis. He came to the conclusion that disease was the result, not of a single local cause, but of the patient's whole manner of living and attitude to life, and that the relationship between patient and doctor was an important element in any treatment. He coined the term Id which was afterwards used by Freud with a more restricted meaning, ' The Uncon-