v THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOTHERAPY 221
scious is a part of the Psyche, the Psyche a part of the Id \ says Groddeck 89 (p. 213). Thus the Id is close to Schopenhauer's Will and the ' elan vital ' of Bergson. He disbelieved in long analysis and preferred to interpret by the behaviour of the patient rather than from word associations : ' Disease for me is a kind of speech, the meaning of which I, as a doctor, must try to interpret and then decide my treatment accordingly '. Elsewhere he states that the part of the physician is to get rid of the resistance and the patient's will to disease. He refused to make a distinction between organic and functional disabilities and was remarkably successful in treating organic maladies given up as incurable by other doctors.
Gustave Richard Heyer96 says * it behoves us to regard " mind " and " body " as merely two phenomenal forms of one and the same " life " ', and consequently there can be no clear distinction between the organic and the functional. He appeals for a synthesis of artistic intuition and philosophical cognition in studying the phenomena of life and its disorders. Like Groddeck he combines physical treatment with psychological.
The late Hans Prinzhorn, like Freud and Groddeck, was influenced by Goethe, but also by the deep psychological insight of Nietzsche and the characterology of Klages. He believed that a purely scientific basis cannot be found for psychotherapy, that the subject cannot be taught but depends upon personal aptitude and that ultimately psychotherapy is personal guidance. What is needed is a doctrine of life which seeks to comprehend the whole of life as a unity. ' The permanently valuable discoveries of Freud need . . . incorporation in a psychology which shall do justice to the phenomena, without forcing them into the strait waistcoat of an ephemeral system, by too rashly fitting new words to old facts/ Because this is lacking, psychotherapy is an affair of