PSYCHOTHERAPY SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS

A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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240         PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
Names of Instincts                   Names of Emotional Qualities Accom-
(Synonyms in Parenthesis)                     panying the Instinctive Activities
(12)  Acquisition (hoarding in- Feeling of ownership, of posses-stinct).                                      sion (protective feeling).
(13)  Construction.                           Feeling of creativeness, of mak-
ing, of productivity.
(14)  Laughter.                                Amusement (jollity, carelessness,
relaxation).
The minor instincts of scratching, sneezing, coughing, urination, and defecation, are so simple in their bodily expressions that we cannot recognize as specific qualities the excitements which accompany their exercise ; though the impulse of each may on occasion be excited in great strength IS2 (pp. 324, 325). If we add to all these instincts the non-specific tendencies of sympathy, imitation, suggestion, pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain, we have, according to McDougall, all the primary impulses which go to make up the tissue of the human mind.
It would be a mistake to regard as fixed and indisputable the actual number of psychophysical dispositions into which McDougall divides the instinctive life, and other eminent psychologists differ from him considerably in this matter, as can be seen by a comparison of the work of Thorndike227 (pp. 187-191), Thouless 228 (pp. 66-67), Shand 2o6 (chs. 3 and 4), Hocking 98 and Rivers I93 (pp. 52-60). Thorndike, for instance, says that ' too little is known about the extent to which human behaviour is based upon instincts to allow their enumeration \ An important variation of McDougairs scheme is to be seen in Mr. Shand's view that joy and sorrow belong to the list of primary emotions, and that tender emotion is a complex, being, indeed, not a single emotion, but a class consisting of many varieties, such as pity, gratitude, reverence, aspiration, reproach, repentance,