PSYCHOTHERAPY SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS

A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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vi                THE ANATOMY OF HUMAN PERSONALITY             241
pathos, all of which involve a blending of joy and sorrow in different forms and different proportions. Sorrow is recognizable by its twofold tendency ' to maintain the presence of or thought of its object', and to improve or restore it. Joy, while also having the former of these impulses, ' tends to maintain the object as it is, not to improve it \ The close relation between these two seemingly so opposite emotions is expressed in the words of Shakespeare,' Grief joys, joy grieves, on slender accident'. Both show the same tendency to cling to their object. Dr. William Brown 29 admits McDougall's system; but only ' as a helpful principle of classification \ He continues : ' The individual comes into the world with the power to respond in various ways to stimulation from his environment, and although these various modes of response are functions of his nervous system, nevertheless it is helpful to think of them also as corresponding to different needs and fundamental tendencies of the conscious individual \ But they are ' none of them unconnected with one another. They are all parts of one another. They are all aspects of one vital urge.' <
When these emotions are crystallized around objects and ideas sentiments are formed, the selGregarding sentiment being the basis of personality. The child's earliest reaction "Is purely instinctive, then instinctive behaviour modified by pleasure or pain, later by approval or disapproval of his parents or those around him. At the higher stage this idea of personality or what the conscience approves or disapproves is based on the standard of some ideal personality. Thus the individual comes to give allegiance to a standard of values or a conscience which in some respects reminds us of the Super-ego of psychoanalysis.
The psychoanalytic theory definitely proposing the unconscious psyche as the source of all motivation and