PSYCHOTHERAPY SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS

A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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248         PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
psychoanalysis. Having discovered the ways of the psyche in the clinic, he proceeded to reconstruct psychology in the image of psychoanalysis. The individual psychological structure according to Freud is composed of Id, Ego and Super-ego. First came the Id, the great ' Unconscious ' deep-seated, organic, affective.
The problem of living is to reconcile and merge the pleasure principle and the reality principle ; to live out the urges, yet attain a life of reason. In Beyond the Pleasure Principle the turning-point of the new dispensation Freud corrected the original doctrine that pleasure alone is primary and regulative, and recognized the non-sexual instincts. By this revision psychoanalysis recognized more adequately that within the human psyche there is an Ego as well as an Id. The doctrine finds expression in The Ego and the Id, a ' further epistle in the New Testament of the Freudian Scriptures \
The third member of the trinity that shapes our ends is the Super-ego, the Ego Ideal, created in a complicated way by the Ego in its habitat of circumstance, and setting the transformed goal of human endeavour, determining the course of the civilizing process. The Id a term borrowed from Nietzsche, at the suggestion of Groddeck is all primary, the Super-ego is a secondary development. The Ego partakes of both and in its elaboration is mainly secondary. We cannot live out the primary Id urges and become what we are complicated Egos living under Super-ego systems and ideals. The more abstract reformulation of Freudianism sets forth how Id became Ego and developed a Super-ego, and how all three rule the world of psyche in normal and neurotic personality. Freud has reduced this threefold division to a diagram merely as a mnemonic aid to imagination concretely inclined, and thus he disarms one phase of