2$0 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
much an emergent striving for emancipation and independence as a rivalry for affection. But the course of growth is represented as so largely the wanderings of libido that the Ego has never completely come into its own. Hence Jung's protesting secession emphasizing the collateral sovereignty of Ego-urges, and the will-to-power concentration of the Adlerian position. In the riper formulation the Freudian Ego appears in fairer stature and truer perspective.
The Ego is a coherent organization of mental life, derived from that more primal structure, the Id, by modifications imposed on it by the external world. Its characteristics are as follows :
It is not sharply differentiated from the Id ; its lower portion merges into the Id. Part of it is conscious ; part of it is unconscious. From it proceed the repressions, holding in check the superior strength of the Id. Sublimation may take place through the mediation of the Ego ; in this way erotic libido is changed into Ego-libido. Just as instincts play a great role in the Id, so perceptions play a great part in the Ego. It goes to sleep, but exercises censorship in dreams and strives to be moral. It owes service to three masters and is consequently menaced by three dangers : the external world, the libido of the Id, the severity of the Super-Ego. The Id produces the driving power ; the Ego ' takes the steering-wheel in hand ', in order to reach the desired goal.
The Ego has two different censorial duties in respect of the Id : (a) to watch the outer world and seize the most opportune moment for a harmless gratification of Id urges ; (J?) to induce the Id to modify or renounce its urges, or to substitute or postpone its gratifications.
If the Ego is to exert any real influence on the Id, it must have access to all parts of it. If, however, it