A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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vi                 THE ANATOMY OF HUMAN PERSONALITY             251
deals with an Id urge by means of repression, it must pay by losing control of the urge which will attempt in all sorts of disguises to assert its independence. A neurosis is often the result of this Ego-Id conflict; and, in any case, there is bound to be some crippling of the Ego.
The Super-Ego is an outgrowth of and is a modification of the Ego ; it has a special position in regard to the Ego and has the capacity to rule it. It is to a great extent unconscious ; it is independent of the conscious Ego and is largely inaccessible to it. It is always in close touch with the Id and can act as its representative in relation to the Ego. It is a deposit left by the earliest object-cathexes of the Id. It is the ' heir of the Oedipus Complex ' a precipitate of identifications with the parents ' in some way combined together \ It is a borrowing by the child's Ego of strength from the father to help in carrying out the repression of the Oedipus complex, a setting up within the self of the obstacle to Oedipus desires ' a most momentous loan \ Its chief function is criticism which creates in the Ego an unconscious sense of guilt. It is essentially the same as conscience, and may be hyper-moral and tyrannical towards the Ego. It is amenable to later influences but preserves through life the character given to it by its derivation from the parent complex. The mature Ego remains subject to Super-Ego domination. The injunctions and prohibitions of other authorities remain vested in the Super-Ego and continue in the form of Conscience to exercise the censorship of morals.
Summing up one aspect of the Super-Ego's functions, Freud 67 (pp. 75-76) says : ' If any one were inclined to put forward the paradoxical proposition that the normal man is not only far more immoral than he believes but also far more moral than he has any idea of, psycho-