A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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vi                THE ANATOMY OF HUMAN PERSONALITY             257
of comparison and orientation which make possible something that has long been lacking, a critical psychology \125 (p. 108). He conceives these types as determined by the physical constitution; that is, a person is an introvert or is not, according to his chemical and biological make-up. The direction in which the liberated energies are guided is important to Jung, especially in older individuals. He thinks that not enough attention has been paid to the constructive part of the psychic life. What Jung calls the error of Freudianism is the lack of recognition that there is a higher spiritual development out of these instinctive; drives which have been neglected. He would have us focus our attention on the ethical side of man, not treating ethics as a series of precepts, but as the evolution of these unconscious trends. Jung's classification of types has aroused great interest, research and controversy. Briefly stated, the extravert is one who is dominated by external and social values, while the introvert takes a subjective view and is governed by the relationship of things to himself. The characteristic differences between the two types, as described by Jung, has been tabulated205 as follows :
Extravert Characteristics
(i) Directly orientated by objective data.
(2)   Conduct governed by necessity and expediency.
(3)  Accommodates readily to new situations.
(4)   Is negligent of ailments, not taking care of self.
(5)  Adjustments are compensatory.
(6)  Typical psychoneurosis is hysteria.
Introvert Characteristics
(1)   Subjective determinants are the more decisive ones.
(2)  Conduct governed by absolute standards and principles.
(3)  Lacks flexibility and adaptability.
(4)   Is over-attentive to ailments and careful of self.
(5)  Adjustments are made by withdrawing and fantasy.
(6)  Typical psychoneurosis is obsession or compulsion state.