vi THE ANATOMY OF HUMAN PERSONALITY 263
the rudiment of mind. But whether we are able to define it or not, we all know in some rough sense what we mean by the term. It is the basis of Descartes' philosophy, " Cogito ergo sum ". Whatever he knew or did not know, he knew that he could think. And it is that thinking, idealizing, aspiring, hoping, loving part of ourselves which I wish to suggest by the name of spirit/ Here the spirit seems to be synonymous with soul or mind, but mainly when used in a theological context. All this means that we do not distinguish the psychological from the spiritual ; and we cannot countenance that old distinction between body, soul and spirit. There is no such thing as psyche without spirit, and it is difficult to think of the organized human body without also thinking in terms of spirit30 (p. 128). If a metaphor be permitted as an aid to the concretely inclined imagination perhaps the lighted electric lamp would serve. The bulb may be regarded as the body; the filament as the soul; and light as the spirit. We cannot think of light without the filament, and without the bulb there can be no light.
F. W. H. Myers l6la assumed that man is an organism informed or possessed by a soul. This view obviously involves the hypothesis that we are living in two worlds at once, a planetary life, to which the organism is intended to react and also a cosmic life in that spiritual or met-etherial world which is the native environment of the soul. As Jesus said to Pilate, ' My kingdom is not of this world ', it would seem that this spiritual world and the kingdom of which Jesus spoke are one and the same. The belief in this other world and the endeavour to hold intercourse with it are what distinguish religion from ethics.
In considering the conclusions and the basis of thought upon which they have been built, it is the