The Scope of Psychotherapy
This chapter is concerned with the practical aspect of the body-mind relationship. In so far as the organism acts as an integral whole it is obvious that disturbances of the mind, that is, disturbances in the life of action, must have some relationship to disturbances in the life of the organs. There are no attitudes of mind which exist apart from changes in the physical organism and there are few changes in the physical organism which are not accompanied by corresponding repercussions in the mind. When the organism adopts an attitude towards the external world for the purpose of satisfying some craving or for the realization of a high ideal, there is a corresponding physical event. An act of gratitude as well as an act of aggression has its physical counterpart. Just as hunger leads to disturbances in the alimentary system, so the production of a poem is the result of emotional changes in which both the sympathetic nervous system, internal secretions and the highest cerebral activities are working together to achieve harmony in action.
There is a popular classification of diseases of the body into functional and organic ; whereas in an organic disease there is supposed to be some disturbance or alteration in structure, functional disease merely implies a disturbance of function without any such structural alteration. This distinction has been criticized on the ground of its inadequacy: ' There can be no merely