PSYCHOTHERAPY SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS

A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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VII
THE SCOPE OF PSYCHOTHERAPY
291
Many efforts have been made, however, to apply the psychoanalytic technique in a modified form in schizophrenic patients. Thus Clark 35 has elaborated what he terms ' the phantasy method of analysing Narcissistic Neuroses \ Zilborg 252 gives an account of a case of schizophrenia, the analysis of which covered 2000 pages and took place in about 450 interviews of one hour each. Dr. Devine49 (p. 344) points out that a preliminary period of ' reality testing ' is required before the analytical situation is attacked, and adds that it is doubtful whether any type other than the paranoid is amenable to analysis. No claim for cure is made.
The most recent research suggests that the schizoid type is much more common than is realized, but that only a small percentage of these develop to schizophrenia ; and that if the early signs of this are recognized, suitable psychological and environmental influences will prevent it from developing.
Also cases of schizophrenia regarded as completely hopeless are now answering favourably to treatment by large shocks of insulin which put the patient into a comatose state for some time, and when he comes out he is more rational. At this stage analytical treatment is applied. Paranoia (delusions of grandeur) develops among some schizophrenic cases. Stekel claims cures by analysis but, on the whole, he is not inclined to advise the psychotherapist to expect great results.
An investigation of the history of a psychotic patient not infrequently reveals the occurrence in early childhood of pathological reactions strikingly analogous to those exhibited by schizophrenic subjects. In the behaviour of such a patient, indeed, it is possible to detect symptoms almost identical with those described by the relatives as having been noticed in early childhood. Such observations are important as they give colour to the view that