viii ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE AND CONFESSIONAL 313
were regarded by physicians as the evidence of postprandial disturbance. Neurologists performed many experiments of a physiological nature to learn something of them. There are reports, in medical literature, of how they have been artificially induced. Sleeping subjects would have their limbs put in certain postures and their dreams noted.
In 1900 Freud published a work74 that had tremendous influence on the growing science of psychoanalysis. The dream, he found, was a distorted, condensed or elaborated statement of the past and the present. For this reason it was odd, undecipherable. ' The dream ', Freud says, ' is in itself not a social utterance, and to understand the meaning of the dream, one must know its language and technique.' It is ' the royal road to the Unconscious \
The dream has been described by him as the disguised fulfilment of a repressed wish. The child dreams of mountains of the ice-cream which was denied him the day before ; the prisoner dreams that he is free, walking outside the gates. And, as we say in Egypt, ' the hungry man dreams himself in the bread-market '. Desires that must perforce be denied in waking life are fulfilled in the dream. Included in it are elements of the day's activities (so-called ' day-dream '), or bits of action belonging to a period months or years before, symboliza-tions and dramatizations which give it its characteristic unreality. This is the so-called manifest content of the dream. The day-dream is tied to deeper-lying fantasies and wishes, the latent content, which expresses the true purpose of the dream action. Hence, in most dreams distortion of the material occurs, figures are coalesced, there are ridiculous contrasts, condensations (the fulfilment of several wishes in one short dream), and displacements (the shifting of emphasis from one part of the dream to another to hoodwink the censor), and fore-