A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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the medium which carries the emotion and allows the analyst and patient to watch the movements of the unconscious life. Freud says : ' One is really never sure of having interpreted a dream completely ; even if the solution seems satisfying and flawless, it still remains possible that there is a further meaning which is manifested by the same dream. Thus the amount of condensation is strictly speaking indeterminable '74 (p. 261).
In nightmare intense fear is felt. The psychoanalytic explanation of this is that the feelings of anxiety aroused by guilty wishes are dominant. Nevertheless, the raison d'etre of the dream is that fundamentally it is expressing a very strong wish, but one which is very much forbidden. This accounts for the psychology of the spontaneous nightmare, but it cannot be the whole explanation, for otherwise why should organic disturbances, such as indigestion, heart attacks, or fever, cause nightmare ? Certain visceral sensations undoubtedly are contributory causes, for when organic stimuli produce anxiety, this in turn will call up frightening ideas.
Besides finding expression in dreams, disguised wishes escape in wit and in slips of the tongue.72 ' The real word springs forth first/ is a popular Egyptian saying in connection with such word-slips. By using a syllable or a word which is part of his own associations, the perpetrator lets the cat out of the bag. Consequently we can understand why the perpetrator of a word-slip usually rationalizes it as a defence reaction.
The foundations of psychoanalysis are still in a state of flux. How far the Freudian insight has enhanced or clarified human values is a question for future generations. ' One might ask me \ Freud so strikingly writes, ' whether and how far I am convinced of the correctness