vin ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE AND CONFESSIONAL 333
learn much, however, if he would study the findings of modern psychological research, and particularly the technique of therapy it has developed.
It has been said that orthodox analysis has no room for religion, and in support of this charge it is pointed out that Freud himself speaks of religion as an illusion, a wish-fulfilment, instead of looking upon it as an attitude of the mind which gives direct awareness of some reality. ' We call ', writes Freud, ' a belief an illusion when wish-fulfilment is a prominent factor in its motivation while disregarding its relation to reality ' 69 (p. 54). In a later publication 75 he, however, refers to himself as a ' moderate theist ', a description which should go some way towards relieving the fears of those who see in psychoanalysis a new danger to their creeds. But what is more important is the fact that the Freudian technique is not closely connected with Freudian metaphysics, which are being continually altered. Except among the more orthodox disciples his metaphysics are rather severely criticized. Sir Percy Nunn states, ' I cannot think that the world will accept Freud's pessimistic philosophy of life'; and Mitchell159 writes, 'perhaps the criticism which will, in the end, invalidate Freud's arguments, may come, not from those who dispute the accuracy of his deductions, but from those who question the fundamental assumption on which all his reasoning rests the assumption that all the phenomena of life and mind can be interpreted in terms of the physical sciences \ We have seen that Jung, Brown, Suttie and others, reject this narrow determinism and place a value on the religious life. Dr. Brown, for instance, said that after an analysis lasting nearly a hundred hours, his religious convictions were not removed, but rather deepened and clarified, and he finds this likewise with many who undergo deep analysis under him. In