PSYCHOTHERAPY SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS

A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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344        PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
subject may be made to experience a hallucinatory perception of almost any object, the more easily the less unusual and out of harmony with the surroundings is the suggested object.
A negative hallucination may be induced by telling the subject that a certain object or person is no longer present, and he then ignores in every way that object or person. This is more puzzling than the positive hallucination. Both kinds of hallucination tend to be systematically and logically developed. Kronfeld says, that ' the illusory perceptions arise not so much out of abnormal sensible and sensory excitations of peripheral or cortical nature, which possibly are liberated by the hypnosis as we imagine happens with " true " hallucinations but the illusory perceptions are based in altogether preponderating proportion on the imagining, reproducing and judicial processes, which under the pressure of suggestion occupy the consciousness with the greatest intensity and dominating power, and form fantastic totalities \
Delusions, or false beliefs as to their present situation or past experiences, may be induced with many subjects. On being assured that he is some other person, or that he is in some strange situation, the subject may accept the suggestion and adopt his behaviour with great histrionic skill to the induced delusion. It is probable that many, perhaps all, subjects are vaguely aware, as we sometimes are in dreams, that the delusions and hallucinations they experience are of an unusual nature. In the lighter stages of hypnosis a subject usually remembers the events of his waking life ; but in the deeper stages he is apt, while remembering the events of previous hypnotic periods, to be incapable of recalling his normal life ; but in this respect, as also in respect to the extent to which on awaking he remembers the