346 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
postures for long periods of time, have experienced vivid hallucinations, and have produced through the power of the imagination extraordinary organic changes in the body.
The phenomena of the Stigmata are no doubt explainable along these lines, and is not confined to Christian saints and mystics. Herodutus95 relates, regarding a temple of Hercules in Egypt, that runaway slaves who took refuge in it were not liable to be recaptured if they showed on their bodies stigmata which signified their dedication to him. St. Paul speaks of himself bearing on his body ' the Stigmata of the Lord '. The Stigmata of St. Francis have been, perhaps, the most discussed. Sabatier in referring to the influence of mind on body in connection with this says, ' We have caught but fleeting glimpses into the domain of mental pathology. So vast is it and unexplored, that learned men of the future will perhaps make, in the realm of psychology and physiology, such discoveries as will bring about a complete revolution in our laws and customs 200 (p. 94).
Perhaps the most marvellous achievement among well-attested cases of control of bodily functions is that of certain yogis of Hindustan ; by long training and practice they seem to acquire the power of almost completely arresting all their vital functions. An intense effort of abstraction from the impressions of the outer world, a prolonged fixation of the eyes upon the nose or in some other strained position and a power of greatly slowing the respiration, these seem to be important features of their procedure for the attainment of their abnormal states.
The methods of inducing hypnosis are almost as numerous as are outstanding hypnotists.
Mesmer's method was to put his hands upon the shoulders of the subject. Then he brought them down