352 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
arms should rest at his side. He is then told to relax. This will be greatly assisted if he breathes deeply ten or a dozen times. This deep breathing causes carbon dioxide shortage, which of itself produces flaccidity of muscles. He may now be told to go to sleep ; but before inducing sleep it is often advisable to tire the eye muscles by making him converge on the fingers, or on some other object, held close to the eyes. The eyelids may be fatigued by making him close the eyes tightly and then open them widely on the orders ' one ', ' two ', given about every half-second. It will soon be found that the eyelids tend to remain closed; if they are opened at the wrong time they are only half-opened. Then the hypnotist orders them in a low monotonous tone to remain closed. ' They are heavy. They are tired. Your whole body is tired. It is so tired. Your whole body wants rest. You are going to sleep. You are so tired and are sinking down, down, into quiet restful sleep/ and so forth. In this way most people can be hypnotized, though some may require three or four sittings before the deeper stages of hypnosis are reached.
Patients may be awakened by blowing in the face and by similar stimuli ; but the most useful method is to order them to awaken when a given word is said ; for example, on the counting of ' three \
Under hypnosis there is usually an experience of separateness of the ' body which acts ' from the ' individual ', who is often able to watch his body behave as though it had nothing to do with him. In the deeper stages the subject has given himself up so far to the hypnotist that, if the latter orders him to forget or if the patient himself believes he will not remember what happens, there will be complete amnesia.
Besides suggestions which will be carried out during