ix SCIENTIFIC HYPNOSIS AND THE OCCULT 353
hypnosis, others can be made to occur later, and these are known as post-hypnotic phenomena. Subjects can even be made to carry out suggestions at exact times. In certain well-authenticated cases, they fulfilled the instructions punctually whether they were asleep or awake. If asleep they did what was necessary without waking, knowing nothing about it afterwards. If subjects are awake when they comply with instructions, they will, if asked why they have behaved in this particular manner, either invent a reason or say that they do not know why, but that they were compelled to do what they did. If they remember that the action has been suggested to them, they may refuse to perform it, and if it is one repugnant to their moral nature, or merely one that would make them appear ridiculous, they may persist in their refusal.
Though the subject may forget what happens under hypnosis, if again hypnotized he will recall all that then occurred. If, for example, he has switched on and off the light, in compliance with hypnotic instructions, he may not know why he has done this, but will, if pressed, make quite a good ' rationalization ' for his action. If, however, he is again hypnotized and asked why he did this, he will reply correctly that it was because he had been ordered to do so under hypnosis. He remembers what had previously been forgotten. In a similar way past experiences, which have been forgotten, may be recalled under hypnosis. Consequently it has been found valuable in treating cases of ' lost memories \ One of its most striking qualities, the possibility of producing complete anaesthesia, has been employed in surgery, especially by Esdaile, who was in the employment of the East India Company from 1830 to 1851. He performed ' thousands of painless minor operations and about 300 capital ones. Among the latter were 19