358 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
out when the patient was in a state of hypnosis, and some workers have attempted to combine analytic explorations with hypnotism. Indeed, it is often asked why this should not be regularly done, a natural question in view of the heightened possibilities offered by hypnosis for the widening of the field of memory ; since Breuer's time, Janet, Morton Prince, and many others have used hypnosis for the recovery of forgotten memories in hysteria with therapeutic as well as diagnostic purpose. The psychoanalytic schools answer that the reason why the aims of psychoanalysis have proved to be incompatible with the use of hypnotism are plain from some considerations on the nature of the latter. Hypnotism facilitates the recovery of preconscious memories only up to a certain point; it imposes an absolute barrier to the exploration of the unconscious proper, where the true roots of the neurosis lie. Speaking of his early investigations with the aid of hypnosis, Freud says, ' I admit that the work went then more easily and agreeably, also that the time taken was much shorter. The results, however, were capricious and not lasting, so that finally I abandoned the use of hypnosis. And then I understood that it had been impossible to obtain any insight into the dynamics of these affections so long as I used hypnosis. This state successfully concealed from the physician's perception the very existence of the patient's resistance. It pushed it into the backgr6und, made a certain region free for the analytic work, and so dammed it on the borders of this region as to make it impenetrable, just as doubt does in the case of the obsessional neurosis. For this reason I might also say that psychoanalysis proper originated only when the help of hypnosis was relinquished ' II8 (pp. 49-50).
However Stekel, Brown and other psychotherapists use a combination of hypnosis and analytic technique.