PSYCHOTHERAPY SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS

A Broad Perspective on Mental Healing

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ix                 SCIENTIFIC HYPNOSIS AND THE OCCULT              361
are, or are thought to be, greater than his own. The mere fact of practice makes a person more willing to accept a suggestion emanating from them. McDougall follows these lines in his explanation of hypnosis, while the psychoanalytic school maintain that the hypnotist stands for the father; that, for the time being, the patient regards the hypnotist in the same way as he regarded his parent when he was very young. Yet there is a great fundamental difference between the two theories, for the psychoanalytic school regards the fundamental, instinctive basis to be libidinal, whereas the other group does not. Freud says, ' Another time a particular patient whom I had repeatedly helped through nervous conditions by hypnosis, during the treatment of a specially stubborn attack, suddenly threw her arms around my neck. This made it necessary to consider the question, whether one wanted to or not, of the nature and source of the suggestive authority '70
(P. 289).
Those who uphold these views, both Freudian and non-Freudian, lay much stress on rapport; or, in other words, the well-known factor of transference. This is an affectively toned attitude towards the hypnotist on the part of the subject who is made willing to accept and to act upon the suggestion given. McDougall considers that rapport is of the essence of suggestion in hypnosis and hence would imply that there is no ' autosuggestion ' as advocated by Coue. Experiments were performed to test the possibility of autosuggestion by Foote and Young.251 They found that their three subjects could decide beforehand what they would do under hypnosis. For example, one subject wrote on a paper, which he placed in his pocket, that he would be hypnotized by Dr. Young but would comply only with Professor Foote's instructions. On another occasion the