400 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
instead, ' I can, therefore I ought' ; meaning that our obligation is according to our real power. The whole tendency of psychological thought is to emphasize the potentialities of man, as is seen by the titles of recent works.154' 2I° The word ' ought' is regarded with considerable caution among psychologists, Freud going so far as to suggest that the idea it represents has its origin during infancy, and arises from identification of the child with the father, an acceptance of authority from without. In this way philosophy can learn much from the data provided by psychology with regard to the nature of the human personality and its relationship with its environment.
Pathological symptoms and anomalies of behaviour are manifestations of a disharmony between the conscious and the unconscious life. To use more accurate Freudian language, in the normal individual the dynamic instinctual forces of the Id are brought into harmony with the dominating forces of the Ego, so that the Ego and Super-ego (or Ego ideal) become united in one effective unit, while in pathological states the influence of the conscious Ego is diminished in favour of the unconscious instinctual motivations of an asocial nature.
A person should live out the superior vocation as manifested in the unconscious and not the inferior urges expressed in maladapted behaviour. When, therefore, in the Jungian sense, he realizes what his unconscious urges really mean, what his direction should be, as distinct from the symptomatic manifestation of his wandering from the true path that his libido would cut out for him, he obtains a new direction.
If at this point we were to compare the methods of Jung with those of Freud, we should say that the latter is analytic, an attempt to reduce behaviour to its lowest common denominator; or, to be more