402 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
place cultural interpretations on the highest levels, and regard biology as a very partial view of man's soul, the Jungian psychology will be sure to have its adherents, and will also have its cures amongst patients who prefer to have their difficulties interpreted in the light of beauty, truth and goodness, rather than of those instincts which science has demonstrated to be the common heritage of man and beast.
Over against Freud and Jung, Adler stresses the power motive the thwarting of which produces neuroses. Thus the whole matter can be summed up by saying that whereas the essence of Freudianism is a rigid biological determinism, Jung regards man as pursuing a destiny prepared for him largely by the unconscious urges of the race ; while Adler finds the whole of life summed up in the will to power. The meaning of life for Adler lies in its effort to overcome the sense of inferiority which is an essential part of infancy, and to find instead scope for its significance. ' The individual ', writes Mairet, ' is ceaselessly striving to assert himself upon the level of human intelligibility . . . the fundamental striving of the soul for self-existence demands this. The individual must feel himself to be a being with meaning, for he cannot have human importance without' I43 (p. 65).
The immense social value of Adler's work lies in its emphasis on correct social orientation, so that the human soul's integrity and happiness are essentially features of its social functioning. Adler has, in fact, given modern psychological formulation of the old truth that we are members one of another. ' We cannot', he says, ' escape from the net of our old relatedness. Our sole safety is to assume the logic of our communal existence upon this planet as an ultimate and absolute truth which we approach, step by step, through the conquest of illusions