4IO PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
been possible to set Stoicism on fire, something not unlike Hebrew prophecy would have emerged. Amos, who turned conscience into a sword, is typical of that royal race of men whose lips were edged with lightning and whose words reverberated like thunder in the minds of men. But even in the Old Testament, prophecy becomes something more than an incarnate ' ought \ There is a famous passage in Micah where a new note of moral and spiritual gentleness is heard amidst the artillery of the prophets' battle.
There is another contrast which is inherent in the moral process itself and which emerges in different fashions in the ethical experience of man. This has to do with the placing of emphasis on the outward conduct or on the inner motives. The first is typified by Aristotle, who does, however, recognize the importance of the inner life. In Plotinus there is such an emphasis on this that both thought and conduct may seem to be entirely transcended in the rapturous apprehension of the Ultimate Reality by the spirit of man which he feels to be the ultimate good of humanity. One attitude toward life is expressed in the words of Matthew Arnold ' Conduct is three-fourths of life \ The other is at least suggested in the familiar words of Emerson ' What you are speaks so loud that I cannot hear what you say \ There is much to be said for each position.
Now, the moment we examine Christianity in the light of this discussion, we are fairly surprised to find in what a thorough fashion it provides the synthesis which unites every element of good in the philosophy of conduct and the philosophy of motives. No one ever spoke more searching words regarding the inner psychological processes than did Jesus.136 He drew the contrast between the outer and the inner with a power which the world can never forget. His metaphor of whitened