418 PSYCHOTHERAPY: SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
Returning to psychology, we find that love has been recognized distinctly as the healing power. ' The physician's love heals the patient' is the dictum of Ferenczi.57 ' A group ', Freud says, ' is clearly held together by a power of some kind; and to what power could this feat be better ascribed than to Eros, who holds together everything in the world '66 (p. 40). ' The sexual instinct became for us transformed into the Eros that endeavours to impel the separate parts of living matter to one another, and to hold them together; what is commonly called the sex instinct appears as that part of the Eros that is turned towards the object' 65 (p. 79). This idea has been elaborated by Pfister into a kind of psychological philosophy of the love-life. ' Disturbances of the love-life/ he says, ' refusal of tenderness, slighting, too great severity, the loss of dear ones, etc., do often lead to illness ' I76 (p. 55). Love, for him, as also for Dr. W. Brown, is primary. ' All hate ', Pfister says, ' arises from an inhibition of the life-will it may be from envy, revenge, jealousy, or unpleasant identification ', and from this he draws the conclusion that ' evil is biologically useless, good the healthy condition. . . . The art of proper, morally superior loving becomes thus the substance of the art of living. Self-love without love for neighbours, the absolute egoism, we perceived to be a force hostile to self and destructive of self. We were compelled to postulate the inwardness of the mind,
but of THE MIND LIGHTED WITH LOVE FOR ONE'S FELLOWS,
in the name of mental health ' I75 (p. 570).
But it is not from considerations forced upon us by a calculating utilitarianism that we love. The only love worth while, the spontaneous outgoing of the human heart, does not arise because of the benefits which either we ourselves or our neighbours can derive from it. Ultimately love must spring from the profound con-