440 PSYCHOTHERAPY : SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS chap.
able treatment in order that it will not, as a result of ignorance, go to another part which is not diseased.' Spiritual healing can almost be regarded as a kind of surgery. What Gregory of Nyssa meant was that unless the instrument were used rightly it might cut in the wrong way. It is the manner in which it is received which makes it effective. Such an insight into the anatomy of the human personality shows that it was not for nothing that the title ' physician of the soul ' was accorded to the priest. The same advice as Gregory of Nyssa gives is repeated by Professor Mackenzie in modern terms. ' The pastor ', he says, ' must take psychology in all its bearings on philosophy and ethics as well as character. He has not only to attempt the cure of the souls which are sick morally, but to prevent any such disease ; his work is just as much to make the children safe as to save them when they go astray. . . . The pastor can scarcely become a specialist in the more severe moral conflicts which demand the care of analyst or psychotherapist ; but he will have knowledge enough to know that such a case needs special treatment and where to send him. Such a knowledge would save much misery and suffering ' I56
But who is sufficient for all these things ? To meet deep human needs an adequate training is required ; unfortunately, however, it is no exaggeration to say that the training received by candidates for the ministry of most denominations is superficial as far as this is concerned. With all due recognition of the enormous amount of necessary learning which has to be packed into the years devoted to preparation, it is surely regrettable that there should not be found in the curriculums anything which gives any indication that these spiritual leaders of the future are given an insight into the kind of conflict which is besetting the souls of the people they