INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION lxxiii
Professor Pavlov, Dr. Chakotin bases his analysis of totalitarian methods on Pavlov's fundamental researches of conditional reactions in dogs.
3. HITLER AND PSYCHO-LOGICAL FACTORS IN HIS LIFE
The groping dissatisfaction with the old system was so general that only a catalyst was needed to precipitate the crisis. This catalyst was found in the son of Alois Schicklgruber (also spelled Schiicklgruber) who later changed his name to 'Hitler'. There was a history of illegitimacy in the family. Rudolf Olden in his biography of Hitler says, 'Hitler has given the simplest and clearest picture possible of conditions in his father's home. But we have only to look at the facts to see that, far from being simple, the married life of his father was unusual and tempestuous. Three wives, seven children, one divorce, one birth before marriage, two shortly after the wedding, one wife fourteen years older than himself and another twenty-three years younger - that is saying a good deal for a Customs officer.'
There were other important circumstances in Adolf Hitler's life which were influential and found their fulfillment in totalitarian systems. (a) He was born from a peasant stock, by tradition prepared to carry a heavy load of work with persistency, (b) He was baptized in the Catholic Church, an institution well known to have totalitarian orientations, and which up to this day in principle proclaims authority over 'all' the Catholics in the world. Having absorbed that totalitarian orientation from childhood up, which applies also to Mussolini, Stalin, etc., it was simple for those so trained to switch to state totalitarianism, where such leaders could find a 'lebensraum' for themselves as individuals, thus enhancing their own 'egos', and incidentally filling their pockets. No one who has actually studied the public appearances of various totalitarian 'fuhrers' can miss the utter similarity between their reactions and the reactions of the mobs to them. They act like little 'gods on wheels', and the mobs react with unreasoned, blind, fanatical subjection, which the fuhrers and their aides know how to manufacture.
(c) Hitler was born into Austrian bureaucracy, one of the most inefficient, dishonest, hypocritical, etc., bureaucracies in the world, permeated with the Hapsburg motto, 'Divide et impera'. The older Schicklgruber wanted his son also to become a Hapsburg bureaucrat. Schicklgruber, Jr. had a natural repulsion for them, and so deliberately boycotted any education, to disqualify himself for such a fate. This lack of education ostracized him from the class of so-called 'intelligentsia', to which a Hapsburg bureaucrat eventually belonged. Through living necessities he had to become a plain labour hand, yet because of his para-