TERMINOLOGY AND MEANINGS 29
it. We shall see, later, that the older s.r were due to the lack of structural investigations, to the old structure of language, to the lack of consciousness of abstracting, to the low order conditionality of our conditional reactions (the semantic included), and a long list of other important factors. All scientific discoveries involve s.r, and so, once formulated, and the new reactions acquired, the discoveries become 'common sense', and we often wonder why these discoveries were so slow in coming in spite of their 'obviousness'. These explanations are given because they also involve some s.r; and we must warn the reader that such evaluations (s.r) : 'Oh, a platitude!', 'A baby knows that', are very effective s.r to prevent the acquisition of the new reactions. This is why the 'discovery of the obvious' is often so difficult; it involves very many of semantic factors of new evaluation and meanings.
A fuller evaluation is only reached at present on racial grounds in two or more generations, and never on individual grounds; which, of course, for personal generalized adjustment and happiness, is very detrimental. Similarly, only in the study of racial achievements called science and mathematics can we discover the appropriate s.r and the nervous mechanism of these so varied, so flexible, and so fundamental reactions.
In fact, without a structural formulation and a A revision based on the study of science and mathematics, it is impossible to discover, to control, or to educate these s.r. For this reason it was necessary to analyse the semantic factors in connection with brief and elementary considerations taken from modern science. But, when all is said and done, and the important semantic factors discovered, the whole issue becomes extremely simple, and easily applied, even by persons without much education. In fact, because the objective levels are not words, the only possible aim of science is to discover structure, which, when formulated, is always simple and easily understood by everyone, with the exception, of course, of very pathological individuals. We have already seen that structure is to be considered as a configuration of relations, and that relations appear as the essential factors in meanings, and so of s.r. The present enquiry, because structural, reveals vital factors of s.r. The consequences are extremely simple, yet very important. We see that by a simple structural re-educa< tion of the s.r, which in the great mass of people are still on the level of copying animals in their nervous reactions, we powerfully affect the s.r, and so are able to impart very simply, to all, in the most elementary education of the s.r of the child, cultural results at present sometimes acquired unconsciously and painfully in university education.
The above considerations have forced upon me the structure of the present work and the selection and presentation of the material. Of